Saturday, June 6, 2020
Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio and his artwork (Research Paper Sample) Content: Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio and his artworkInsert name:Institutional affiliation:Due date:Baroque art is the artwork associated with the Baroque cultural movement, which is identified with catholic revival and the Counter-Reformation. Baroque art started during 1600 and continued in the entire 17th century and early 18th century. Mariah (2004) explains that religious conflicts, which had started during renaissance with the reformation and Counter-Reformation, occurred until 17th century. The religious conflicts between the Protestants and Catholics had a significant impact on art. Baroque art was a new form of art happened in a new era of the high renaissance period (Kieran, 2004). Baroque art applied various styles to create stormy, rich decoration, exceedingly emotional, stark lightening, sensual, bursting with energy, strong curves and more dynamic masterpieces. Caravaggio was a product of Baroque art of the high renaissance. He used realistic approach in pai nting human figures. He painted directly from life experience and dramatically spotlit to create contrast against a dark background. Caravaggio developed a new chapter in the painting history, which amazed his contemporaries. His painting style was easily recognized because the artist emphasized on intense chiaroscuro, co-extensive space and realism. Caravaggios career was promoted when Cardinal Del Monte commissioned him to design artwork in the Cardinals court (Borchgrave, 2000). It was a time when Catholic Church created great building artwork as Counter-Reformation efforts and developed decorations and furnishings particularly in countries such as Flanders, Germany, Spain and Italy. Caravaggio painted for the Cardinal and got more connections from rich collectors and patrons in Rome who gave him commissions to paint. His work focused mainly on religious scenes. His artistic composition was more complex and incorporated several characters. The commission Caravaggio obtained from Cardinal Del Monte motivated him to create several religious works with more complex and larger designs.The conversion on the journey to Damascus is one of the best artwork created by Caravaggio. He designed this masterpiece at the church of Saint Maria de Poppolo in Rome during 1601.The artwork illustrates the biblical scene showing how Saul the Pharisee received his conversion. Jeffrey (2010) says that prior his conversion, Sauls task was to persecute people who declared themselves as Christians. Saul was on his journey to the city of Damascus to persecute Christians there. As Saul neared Damascus on his way, a sudden light flashed around him. In the painting, Saul is on the ground; he is shocked while his eyes are closed because of the light coming from heaven. He became temporally blind, and his arms suggest needing help.There are three characters in the picture: an angle, the horse and Saul. Saul is extremely shocked and in fear because Jesus has just talked to him. The mood of the painting is horrific. Saul the Pharisee is unconscious and shocked; he cannot explain what he is experiencing. Saul closed his eyes because he is stunned by the dazzling brightness of Gods light. The streams of Gods light pass down through the white part of the skewbald horse. Concerning space, the artist placed too much happening at the base of the composition. Too many feet cramped together leave alone Sauls spread arms and discarded sword. Saul is struck by brilliant light and heard the voice of Jesus claiming, Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? The presence of the horse is important since Saul was using it to journey to Damascus city (Mansfield, 2002). The horse looks at his master wondering what just occurred. Paul, who was proudly driving the horse, is now on the ground. This shows that human aspects are not supernatural. People may plan their actions, but Gods dictate is the final say. The horse symbolizes power and strength. According to Goldie and Schellekens (2007), riding a horse means pride and Saul was self-assured of his action. The conversion depicted here is a complete inversion, and nobody could expect such a thing to happen. This was a miracle from heaven bringing lightness in darkness of the world. Saul became blind for him to experience the death of senses so that to see the new light from Gods power. The conversion of saint Paul reminds Christians to allow themselves be formed by Jesus. It is death, but it is a way of receiving the resurrection. Jesus did not punish Saul the Pharisee but commissioned him to become one of the apostles. After Saul, the Pharisee experienced the shocking reality; he later claimed to have seen Jesus Christ in a vision. This was a time when Saul became Saint Paul, the apos...
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Compare and contrast the various personality theories: Psychodynamic perspective, Behavioral and Social Cognitive perspective, Humanistic perspective, and Trait perspective) and discuss which perspective you think is most applicable. Support your argument (based on what you learned, examples, etc). Psychodynamic Perspectives- view personality as being primarily unconscious and as developing in stages. Psychodynamic theorists believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality we have to explore the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. These ideas were sketched by the architect of psychoanalytic theory-Sigmund Freud. Most psychodynamicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Because behaviorist believe that personality is learned and often changes depending on experiences and situations, it follows that, by rearranging experiences and situations, the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality can be changed. Social Cognitive perspective- states that behavior, environment and cognitive factors, such as thoughts, memories, and expectations, are important in understanding personality. Like the behavioral approach of Skinner, the social cognitive view relies on empirical research in studying personality. But this research has focused not just on observable behavior but also on the cognitive factors that influence what we are like as people. Alber Bandura and Walter Mischel are the main architects of social cognitive theory. Humanistic perspective- Stresses that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own destiny, and positive human qualities. Humanistic psychologists believe that each of us has the ability to cope with stress, to control our lives, and to achieve what we desire. Each of us has the ability to break through and understand ourselves and our world; we can burst the cocoon and become a butterfly, say the humanists. Trait perspective- States that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions that tend to lead to characteristicShow MoreRelatedPerspectives of Psychology1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPerspectives of Psychology Psychology can be defined as the systematic study of mental processes, couple with behaviors, and experiences (Kalat, 2011). There are many ways in examining, mental processes and behaviors among people, and therefore psychologist uses different perspectives to understand how human beings, think, act, and behave. Some psychologist uses one perspective to analyze behaviors, and other uses a multidimensional approach. Carter Seifert (2013) identified 7 major perspectivesRead MoreThe Anger Management Program For A Group Therapy Workshop Setting Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor attendance was court mandated. It is an open-ended therapy group workshop with no mandatory end date; the end of treatment is based on meeting treatment goals. 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This diversity within psychology, allows psychologists the ability to expand in all areas of explanation, assessment, and diagnoses, which furthers the science of psychology through many different subfield specialties. Influence on PsychologyÃ¢â¬â¢s Major Concepts Diversity is off great influence on the major concepts in psychology. The cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and humanisticRead MorePsychology : Psychology And Psychology1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPsychology There are six modern psychological perspectives. These perspectives are behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, social, cultural, and biological. Each perspective has its own unique way of explaining human behavior. I think that really explains the complex mental processes and behavior, and each prospective study should not be limited to just one. The following is my explanation of the terms and comparisons between the psychodynamic and behavioral aspects relating to the October 2000Read MoreWhy Are Lgbt Students Committing Suicide More Than Non Transgender Students?1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesit views the behavioral and mental process of LGBT suicide by using the behavioral perspective or theory to determine the external stimuli trigger anger responses or aggressive act that makes an LGBT to commit suicide. It also uses the cognitive perspective to study how the interpretation of a situation may affect the anger of an LGBT and how the anger may affect their thinking to attempting or committing suicide.Furthermore,the research also explores the social-cultural perspective to determine
KING HENRY VI, PART II monologue from the play by William Shakespeare Essay A monologue from the play by William Shakespeare YORK: Anjou and Maine are given to the French,Paris is lost; the state of NormandyStands on a tickle point now they are gone.Suffolk concluded on the articles,The peers agreed, and Henry was well pleasedTo change two dukedoms for a dukes fair daughter.I cannot blame them all. What ist to them?Tis thine they give away, and not their own.Pirates may make cheap pennyworths of their pillage,And purchase friends, and give to courtesans,Still revelling like lords till all be gone,While as the silly owner of the goodsWeeps over them and wrings his hapless handsAnd shakes his head and trembling stands aloofWhile all is shared and all is borne away,Ready to starve and dare not touch his own.So York must sit and fret and bite his tongueWhile his own lands are bargained for and sold.Methinks the realms of England, France, and IrelandBear that proportion to my flesh and bloodAs did the fatal brand Althaea burntUnto the princes heart of Calydon.Anjou and Maine both given unto the French?Cold news for me! for I had hope of France,Even as I have of fertile Englands soil.A day will come when York shall claim his own;And therefore I will take the Nevils parts,And make a show of love to proud Duke Humphrey,And when I spy advantage, claim the crown,For thats the golden mar k I seek to hit.Nor shall proud Lancaster usurp my right,Nor hold the sceptre in his childish fist,Nor wear the diadem upon his head,Whose churchlike humors fits not for a crown.Then, York, be still awhile, till time do serve.Watch thou and wake when others be asleep,To pry into the secrets of the state.Till Henry, surfeiting in joys of love,With his new bride and Englands dear-bought queen,And Humphrey with the peers be fallen at jars.Then will I raise aloft the milk-white rose,With whose sweet smell the air shall be perfumed,And in my standard bear the arms of YorkTo grapple with the house of Lancaster;And force perforce Ill make him yield the crownWhose bookish rule hath pulled fair England down.
Monday, April 20, 2020
"No new taxes." This is a quote that most all of us remember from the 1992 presidential election. Along with it we remember that there were new taxes during that presidents term in office. There are a myriad of promises made and things done in a presidential election year that have questionable motives as to whether they are done in the best interest of the people or in the interests of the presidential candidate. These hidden interests are one of the biggest problems with the political aspects of government in modern society. One of the prime examples of this is the Vietnam War. Although South Vietnam asked for our help, which we had previously promised, the entire conflict was managed in order to meet personal political agendas and to remain politically correct in the world's eyes rather than to bring a quick and decisive end to the conflict. This can be seen in the selective bombing of Hanoi throughout the course of the Vietnam War. Politically this strategy looked very good. Howe ver, militarily it was ludicrous. War is the one arena in which politicians have no place. War is the military's sole purpose. Therefore, the U. S. Military should be allowed to conduct any war, conflict, or police action that it has been committed to without political interference or control because of the problems and hidden interests which are always present when dealing with polit United States involvement in the Vietnam War actually began in 1950 when the U. S. began to subsidize the French Army in South Vietnam. This involvement continued to escalate throughout the 1950's and into the early 1960's. On August 4, 1964 the Gulf of Tonkin incident occurred in which American Naval Vessels in South Vietnamese waters were fired upon by North Vietnam. On August 5, 1964 President Johnson requested a resolution expressing the determination of the United Sates in supporting freedom and in protecting peace in southeast Asia ( Johnson ). On August 7, 1964, in response to the presidenti al request, Congress authorized President Johnson to take all necessary measures to repel any attack and to prevent aggression against the U. S. in southeast Asia ( United States ). The selective bombing of North Vietnam began immediately in response to this resolution. In March of the following year U. S. troops began to arrive. Although the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution specifically stated that we had no military, political, or territorial ambitions in southeast Asia, the interests back home were quite a different story ( Johnson ). The political involvement in Vietnam was about much more than just promised aid to a weak country in order to prevent the spread of communism. It was about money. After all, wars require equipment, guns, tools and machinery. Most of which was produced in the United States. It was about proving America's commitment to stop communism. Or rather to confine communism in its present boundaries But most of all it was about politics. The presidential politica l involvement in Vietnam had little to do with Vietnam at all. It was about China for Eisenhower, about Russia for Kennedy, about Washington D.C. for Johnson, and about himself for Nixon ( Post ). The last two of which were the major players in America's involvement in regards to U. S. Troops being used ( Wittman ). The military involvement in Vietnam is directly related to the political management of the military throughout the war. The military controlled by the politicians. The micro management of the military by the White House for political gain is the primary reason for both the length and cost, both monetary and human, of the Vietnam War ( Pelland ). One of the largest problems was the lack of a clear objective in the war and the support to accomplish it. The predominant military opinion of the military's role in Vietnam in respect to the political involvement is seen in the following quote by General Colin Powell, "If you're going to put into something then you owe the armed forces, you owe the American People, you owe just you're own desire to succeed, a clear statement of what political objective you're trying to achieve and then you put the
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Caffeine Extraction from Tea Leaves Essays Caffeine Extraction from Tea Leaves Paper Caffeine Extraction from Tea Leaves Paper Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Leaves Marc Tugaoen, Kristine Vanzuela, Rafael Villanueva, Justeen Wong Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines Abstract This experiment has been divided into 4 set-ups, first was the solid-liquid extraction, next was the liquid-liquid extraction, then the sublimation and last was the melting point determination. The solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction were both done during the first meeting, the DCM layer was filtered and dried in the evaporating dish and kept inside the locker. The dried was light green, somewhat powdery flakes and was rough, this was purified through sublimation. The %yield of the caffeine was 0. 11%. The last part was determining the melting point of the pure caffeine collected, standard started to melt at 220? and melted completely at 228? while the caffeine started to melt at 228? and completely melted at 231?. Introduction The objectives of the experiment are to a. isolate, purify and characterize caffeine from tea leaves and to b. calculate the percentage yield of caffeine. The active ingredient in the tea and coffee is the caffeine, which is an alkaloid. Alkaloids contain nitrogen and have properties of an organic amine base. Caffeine has a mild stimulating effect on the central nervous system. Caffeine belongs to the family of xanthine, which is known as stimulants. Caffeine is the most powerful xanthine because of its ability to increase alertness, put off sleep and increase ones capacity for thinking. It also relaxes blood vessels and increases urination. Other than tea leaves, caffeine can also be found in coffee, cocoa beans and kola nuts. Tea leaves consist mostly ofÃ cellulose, caffeine, and a small amount of chlorophyll. The solubility of caffeine in water is 22 mg/ml at 25Ã ·C, 180 mg/ml at 80Ã ·C, and 670 mg/ml at 100Ã ·C.  There have been several concerns about the health risks of caffeine, although scientists have already said that normal consumption of caffeine doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t increase health risks. Many consumers still try to avoid caffeine, and because of these reason that decaffeinating coffee and tea has been an important industrial process.  Extraction is the technique we use to separate organic compounds from a mixture of compounds. It is the process of obtaining mixture or compound through chemical, physical and mechanical means. Results and Discussion In order to extract the caffeine from the tea leaves the solid-liquid extraction and liquid-liquid extraction were done first. During the solid-liquid extraction of caffeine from the tea leaves water was used because its cheap and nontoxic. Caffeine is only slightly soluble inÃ hot water, and nearly insoluble inÃ cold water, making it easy to get it to partition into a better solvent . The aqueous layer was added with the dichloromethane or CH2Cl2 to easily extract caffeine since itÃ¢â¬â¢s more soluble in CH2Cl2. To make sure that the solvent moves in all the tea leaf particles to extract caffeine, the separatory funnel was gently shaken. The stopcock was also slightly opened to let out any pressure. Sodium hydroxide was used to make sure that other substances, which are slightly soluble to dichloromethane, are eliminated by converting them to their salts that remain in the water . The boiled tea leaves had two layers the aqueous and the CH2Cl2 layer, and these two were separated, this is the liquid-liquid extraction part. The liquid-liquid extraction resulted in a CH2Cl2 layer which was kept in the evaporating dish and dried. Fig. 1 CH2Cl2 Layer (lower) and Aqueous Layer (upper) Fig. 2 Filtered DCM layer in an evaporating dish The crude caffeine was colored light green, somewhat powdered flakes and had a rough texture. Fig. 3 Dried DCM layer According to Wikipedia. org sublimation refers to the process of transition of a substance from theÃ solidÃ phase to theÃ gasÃ phase without passing through an intermediate liquidÃ phase. Sublimation process was done to purify the crude caffeine; this was a delicate part because we must be careful in handling the test tube for the purified caffeine might fall from its attachment into the test tube. The purified caffeine was colored white, fine, and also somewhat powdery and flakey. Fig. 4 Purified caffeine during sublimation Table 1. Characteristics of Crude and Purified Caffeine| | Color| Appearance| Size| Crude| Light green| Powdery, flakes| fine| Purified| White| Powdery, flakes| fine| The last part was the melting point determination. In this part we are able to tell the purity of the caffeine through the range of the melting point. Table 2. Melting point of Caffeine and Standard| | T1| T2| T1-T2| Caffeine| 228| 231| -3| Standard| 220| 228| -8| Based on the result caffeine is more pure than the standard because the range of its melting point is less compared to the standard. Table 3. Weight of Tea Leaves and Pure Caffeine| Tea leaves| 5. 3692g| Vial w/ cap| 29. 6286g| Vial w/o cap| 27. 8898g| Vial (w/cap) and Caffeine| 29. 6343g| Caffeine| 0. 0057g| Based on the data above the percent yield we got was 0. 11% Experimental Three teabags were opened; tea leaves were combined and weighed. After weighing the tea leaves were returned in the tea bags and were secured with strings and staple wire. Teabags were then boiled in 100ml water for 5 minutes. Fig. 5 Boiling tea leaves Fig. 6 Boiled tea The side of the flask was cooled in running water for 2 minutes. Then the ice cube was mixed in the teas extract cooling to room temperature. The tea extract was then transferred in the separatory funnel which has 20ml of CH2Cl2. Separatory funnel was gently shaken in an upside down manner and the stopcock was also opened a bit to release pressure. The CH2Cl2, lower layer was drained into a clean flask. This extraction was done twice. Then all CH2Cl2 portions were combined, the aqueous layer was discarded. The combined CH2Cl2 was returned into the separatory flask; 20ml of 6M NaOH was added. The aqueous layer was discarded and the CH2Cl2 was put in an evaporating dish, the top was covered with aluminum foil which has some perforations, and it was kept in the locker to let it dry. Fig. 7 Tea extract being transferred into the separatory funnel The next step was the sublimation, to purify the crude caffeine. The crude caffeine was transferred in a filter tube with a fitted inner test tube which served as the Ã¢â¬Ëcold fingerÃ¢â¬â¢; this was put into a hot air bath for about 35 minutes. The cold finger was constantly filled with ice water. Fig. 8 Sublimation set-up, hot air bath The inner tube was carefully removed, the caffeine clinging into the cold finger was scraped off kept in a vial and weighed. The last procedure was the melting point determination. In this part, first the caffeine was grinded into a very fine powder. An end of a capillary tube was sealed by heating it, while rotating at 45? angle from the blue portion of the Bunsen burner flame. Using the open end of the capillary tube, pulverized caffeine crystal was scoop, and the height was 0. 5cm. To pack the caffeine well at the bottom of the capillary tube, we let it fall inside a 1m glass tubing. Once it was well packed it was fastened with the thermometer and standard using a rubber. The thermometer was clamped and dipped into a beaker filled with cooking oil. It was heated using the Bunsen burner and a loop of #12 copper wire was used to make sure the heat of the cooking oil is distributed; we also made sure that the capillary tube did not directly touch the beaker so it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t burn. The melting point of the standard and the caffeine was observed and recorded. Fig. 9 Cooking oil stirred with copper wire to distribute heat Appendix %yield = wt. caffeine (g)wt. tea leaves g x 100 %yield = 0. 0057g5. 3692g x 100 %yield = 0. 11% References:  angelfire. com/blog/caffeinechem/  spot. pcc. edu/~chandy/241/CaffeineExtractionCH2CCl2. pdf  scribd. com/doc/35716872/Extraction-of-Caffeine-from-Tea-Leaves [4 ]http://answers. yahoo. com/question/index? qid=20090721101813AALFlRu  Garcia, G. (2005). Laboratory Experiments in Organic Chemistry. University of Santo Tomas, Manila.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Critical analysis paper - Assignment Example n of this is an extremely dynamic system of world politics that triggers massive changes for every little disturbance in virtually all sectors (Howarth 78). Referring to world politics, the recent past has seen a handful of events that is already shaping international perspectives. The Arab Spring is a key event that spurred an entire revolution in the Arab world. The Spring saw demonstrations and protests to the authorities that eventually necessitated some of them to relinquish power. Violence escalated, and the public outcry for a change in regime and system of governance could not be ignored. Quite evidently, the discomfort occasioned to the authorities as a consequence of the Arab Spring may have been hard to ignore, but again, it is not like they had any choice. A case in point is the Libyan dictator Gaddafi, who tried to ignore the revolutionary wave and was dislodged from power in very unceremonious circumstances. In a similar vein, EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s Hosni Mubarak found himself facing a revolt in what came to be known as the Egyptian revolution of 2011. He however gave in to pressure and quit power. The aggressive nature of Egyptians resurfaced in 2013 when they staged protests against the then president as a result of discontent with the administration. Elections held in 2014 were touted as the most democratic in the recent past for a nation known for political instability. The current president won with a resounding 97% of the votes cast. Definitely from this figures, one can unearth a trend of dislodging individuals who are more inclined towards tyrant behavior from power, and vesting leadership rights upon those that appear to represent their wishes and aspirations fully. A sharp contrast to the above two scenarios is seen when evaluating the US and European elections. The European and U.S elections were marred with little violence, and it was more of a peaceful transition. The prevalence of peace, however, was a consequence of free and fair elections in